MS-Windows

经常会有人问我,自己的Windows出问题了怎么办。这里记下维护Windows不出问题的方法,以及出了问题后怎么处理的方法,还有Windows下一些常用的工具。

怎么保证Windows安全

  • (最重要)打上所有Windows系统补丁,并经常检查有没有新的补丁。可以用如下方法查找补丁:

  • (重要)帐户设置:
    • 所有管理员帐户(属于Administrators组的帐户)设置足够复杂的密码(由字母、数字和特殊字符组成)
    • 禁用Guest帐户
  • (重要)安装杀毒软件
  • (重要)如果有MS-Office,安装Office的所有补丁,可以用如下方法查找:
    • 把Windows Update升级为Microsoft Update,就可以自动查找到Office的补丁
    • 在Office的帮助菜单中选择自动查找更新
    • 在MBSA中自动查找补丁
  • (可选)对于在不安全的局域网中使用的Windows系统,最好做好路由器地址的MAC-IP绑定,比如说arp -s 192.168.0.1 00-04-61-25-22-6A,这里192.168.0.1是路由器地址,00-04-61-25-22-6A是路由器的网卡MAC地址。

  • (可选)安装防spyware、adware、malware的软件
  • (可选)使用普通用户(属于Users组)登录Windows而不要使用管理员用户(属于Administrators组)登录。
  • (可选)使用Firefox来代替IE,在Firefox中加装NoScript插件。如果要用IE,使用IE7代替IE6。

  • 在IE浏览器中禁用无用的插件(工具=>管理加载项)。如果某软件既有独立安装版又有web版(比如ppstream、迅雷等),使用独立安装版而不是web版。

Windows出问题了怎么办?

Windows下常用软件

  • 媒体播放
  • 网络软件

IE增强

ie7pro(拦截广告、鼠标手势、Session恢复等)

免费vpn服务

Hotspot Shield

保护上网隐私工具

http://groups.google.com/group/linux-wz/web?hl=zh-CN

pppoe拨号软件

raspppoe (win9x,win2000上宽带必需)

WEB浏览器

firefox

匿名代理

tor

IM软件

腾讯tm MSN Messenger MSN去广告外挂 Skype GTalk

Ftp/Sftp客户端

filezilla WinScp

电驴

emule

ssh客户端

putty

bt客户端

bitcomet

下载工具

flashget 迅雷

BBS客户端

fterm

远程管理软件

RealVNC Remote Desktop Client

QOS

tcmonlite动态改变ip包的QOS

  • 系统工具

查看CPU等硬件详细信息

cpu-z

系统外壳(代替Explorer.exe完成系统任务栏和窗口管理)

bbLean

文件管理器(代替Explorer.exe完成文件管理)

Directory Opus(收费)

压缩

7-zip

虚拟光驱

alcohol 120(收费软件) Daemon Tools

进程管理器

process explorer

Windows下模拟Unix环境

Cygwin

硬盘保护软件(每次重启时自动还原)

Deep Freeze (收费) Steadystate

硬盘无损分区工具

GParted

硬盘分区的复制、备份、恢复(类似ghost)

clonezilla

Windows半开连接数破解

http://www.lvllord.de/

虚拟机

VMware Player VirtalBox虚拟机

照片处理

Picasa

卫星地图

Google Earth

Java运行环境

JRE

.Net运行环境

.Net Framework

数据库管理系统

MySQL

||窗口总在前面|| Push Pin

  • 办公软件

Windows实用小技巧

  • 自动登录:运行

    rundll32 netplwiz.dll,UsersRunDll
  • 修改smb的端口:在注册表中添加如下键值

    [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NetBT\Parameters\SMB]
    
    "SessionPort"=dword:00000c1d
    
    "DatagramPort"=dword:00000c1d
    其中0c1d是端口号的16进制值。
  • 要运行网络邻居上的程序不弹出安全提示,可以在注册表中添加如下键值:

    [HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Download]
    
    "CheckExeSignatures"="no"
    
    "RunInvalidSignatures"=dword:00000001
    
    
    
    [HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Attachments]
    
    "SaveZoneInformation"=dword:00000000
    
    
    
    
    [HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Associations]
    
    "LowRiskFileTypes"=".zip;.rar;.nfo;.txt;.exe;.bat;.com;.cmd;.reg;.msi;.htm;.html;.gif;.bmp;.jpg;.avi;.mpg;.mpeg;.mov;.mp3;.m3u;.wav"
  • 修改收藏夹的目录,打开注册表中的:

    HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\User Shell Folders
    将其中的Favorites键值改成需要的目录。
  • 普通用户帐号登录后,需要执行管理操作(比如安装软件),可以运行:

    runas /user:Administrator XXXX
    其中XXXX是管理操作的命令
  • 开启WINDOWS高级软件安全策略:

    [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Safer\CodeIdentifiers]
    "Levels"=dword:00035000
  • 用vbscript脚本修改windows的默认Tos:

    strServer = "."
    
    Set objWMI = GetObject("winmgmts:\\" & strServer & "\root\cimv2")
    
    Set objInstance = objWMI.Get("Win32_NetworkAdapterConfiguration")
    
    p_DefaultTOS = 0
    
    intResult = objInstance.SetDefaultTOS(p_DefaultTOS)
    
    Select case intResult
            Case 0 : WScript.Echo "Successful completion, no reboot required"
            Case 1 : WScript.Echo "Successful completion, reboot required"
            Case 64 : WScript.Echo "Method not supported on this platform"
            Case 65 : WScript.Echo "Unknown failure"
            Case 66 : WScript.Echo "Invalid subnet mask"
            Case 67 : WScript.Echo "An error occurred while processing an Instance that was returned"
            Case 68 : WScript.Echo "Invalid input parameter"
            Case 69 : WScript.Echo "More than 5 gateways specified"
            Case 70 : WScript.Echo "Invalid IP  address"
            Case 71 : WScript.Echo "Invalid gateway IP address"
            Case 72 : WScript.Echo "An error occurred while accessing the Registry for the requested information"
            Case 73 : WScript.Echo "Invalid domain name"
            Case 74 : WScript.Echo "Invalid host name"
            Case 75 : WScript.Echo "No primary/secondary WINS server defined"
            Case 76 : WScript.Echo "Invalid file"
            Case 77 : WScript.Echo "Invalid system path"
            Case 78 : WScript.Echo "File copy failed"
            Case 79 : WScript.Echo "Invalid security parameter"
            Case 80 : WScript.Echo "Unable to configure TCP/IP service"
            Case 81 : WScript.Echo "Unable to configure DHCP service"
            Case 82 : WScript.Echo "Unable to renew DHCP lease"
            Case 83 : WScript.Echo "Unable to release DHCP lease"
            Case 84 : WScript.Echo "IP not enabled on adapter"
            Case 85 : WScript.Echo "IPX not enabled on adapter"
            Case 86 : WScript.Echo "Frame/network number bounds error"
            Case 87 : WScript.Echo "Invalid frame type"
            Case 88 : WScript.Echo "Invalid network number"
            Case 89 : WScript.Echo "Duplicate network number"
            Case 90 : WScript.Echo "Parameter out of bounds"
            Case 91 : WScript.Echo "Access denied"
            Case 92 : WScript.Echo "Out of memory"
            Case 93 : WScript.Echo "Already exists"
            Case 94 : WScript.Echo "Path, file or object not found"
            Case 95 : WScript.Echo "Unable to notify service"
            Case 96 : WScript.Echo "Unable to notify DNS service"
            Case 97 : WScript.Echo "Interface not configurable"
            Case 98 : WScript.Echo "Not all DHCP leases could be released/renewed"
            Case 100 : WScript.Echo "DHCP not enabled on adapter"
    End Select
  • Hp Notebook Dmi Info

    # usage: vboxportmap vmname
    
    VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiBIOSVendor" "Hewlett-Packard"
    VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiBIOSVersion" "68YHV Ver. F.0B"
    VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiBIOSReleaseDate"  "07/13/2007"
    VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiBIOSReleaseMajor"  15
    VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiBIOSReleaseMinor"  11
    VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiBIOSFirmwareMajor" 89
    VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiBIOSFirmwareMinor" 53
    VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiSystemVendor" "Hewlett-Packard"
    VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiSystemProduct" "HP Compaq nc4400 (RH136PA#AB5)"
    VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiSystemVersion" "F.0B"
    VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiSystemSerial"  "CND6370JW5"
    VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiSystemUuid" "025E295E-9643-DB11-129C-66990C3E1529"
    VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiSystemFamily" "103C_5336AN"